The Pfizer symposium “Revising the paradigm: the importance of adult vaccination against respiratory diseases” at ECCMID2021 discussed the prevention of pneumococcal disease in adults. In the presentation “Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination for adults: need for expanded valent conjugate vaccines” by Peter Paradiso, the focus was on the history and differences of polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines and their use in vaccination of the adult population to prevent pneumococcal disease. This infographic presents a timeline of the development of conjugate vaccines, and a comparison of the immune responses induced by each type of vaccine.

ECCMID 2021 References: 

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination for adults: need for expanded valent conjugate vaccines. Peter Paradiso (Pennsylvania, USA). Presented online at ECCMID 2021 on 9 July, 2021. 

Additional references:

Black, S., Shinefield, H., Fireman, B., Hiatt, R., Polen, M., & Vittinghoff, E. (1991). Efficacy in infancy of oligosaccharide conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (HbOC) vaccine in a United States population of 61,080 children. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 10(2), 97-103. doi: 10.1097/00006454-199102000-00004

Rappuoli, R., De Gregorio, E., & Costantino, P. (2018). On the mechanisms of conjugate vaccines. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 116(1), 14-16. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1819612116

Zhang, Q., & Finn, A. (2004). Mucosal immunology of vaccines against pathogenic nasopharyngeal bacteria. Journal Of Clinical Pathology, 57(10), 1015-1021. doi:10.1136/jcp.2004.01625310.1136/jcp.2004.016253